Note: an estimated 20, 900 new infections in 2016.
Hepatitis B: After a marked decline in acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections reported to CDC since the 1990s—with the widespread introduction of hepatitis B vaccination—there has been no consistent trend in acute HBV cases since 2012; that is, reported cases have been fluctuating around 3,000 cases each year. In 2016, there were 3,218 cases reported to CDC. After adjusting for under-ascertainment and under-reporting (2), the estimated number of new HBV infections in 2016 was 20,900 (95% CI, 11,900–51,200).
In addition to new HBV infections, chronic HBV infections remain a major public health challenge. For 2011-2012, an estimated 847,000 (95% CI, 565,000-1,130,000) persons were living with HBV in the United States (8); a 2009 estimate, using other adjustment methods, was reported to be as high as 2.2 million (9). Excluding case reports with unknown or missing data, about one half of chronic HBV infections were among Asian/Pacific Islanders, and three quarters of chronic HBV infections were among persons born outside of the United States. Among persons born outside of the United States with chronic HBV infection, an estimated 58% migrated from Asia (9). CDC mortality data show that disproportionate numbers of Asian/Pacific Islanders are dying with hepatitis B. CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend HBV testing for persons born in countries where HBV infection is endemic and for persons with sexual or blood-borne risks for infection (10). Testing and diagnosis of infection are the first steps toward receipt of recommended care and treatment (11, 12).
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