Note: an estimated 20, 900 new infections in 2016.
Hepatitis B: After a marked decline in acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections reported to CDC since the 1990s—with the widespread introduction of hepatitis B vaccination—there has been no consistent trend in acute HBV cases since 2012; that is, reported cases have been fluctuating around 3,000 cases each year. In 2016, there were 3,218 cases reported to CDC. After adjusting for under-ascertainment and under-reporting (2), the estimated number of new HBV infections in 2016 was 20,900 (95% CI, 11,900–51,200).
In addition to new HBV infections, chronic HBV infections remain a major public health challenge. For 2011-2012, an estimated 847,000 (95% CI, 565,000-1,130,000) persons were living with HBV in the United States (8); a 2009 estimate, using other adjustment methods, was reported to be as high as 2.2 million (9). Excluding case reports with unknown or missing data, about one half of chronic HBV infections were among Asian/Pacific Islanders, and three quarters of chronic HBV infections were among persons born outside of the United States. Among persons born outside of the United States with chronic HBV infection, an estimated 58% migrated from Asia (9). CDC mortality data show that disproportionate numbers of Asian/Pacific Islanders are dying with hepatitis B. CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend HBV testing for persons born in countries where HBV infection is endemic and for persons with sexual or blood-borne risks for infection (10). Testing and diagnosis of infection are the first steps toward receipt of recommended care and treatment (11, 12).
Note: New York Time article – great information and stories about hepatitis B and C. I may require free registration to read a number of articles every month. Alan
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver generally caused by a virus. Hepatitis B and C are the most common viral types. The disease carries a host of complicating factors, side effects and stigma. Here six men and women speak about living with hepatitis.
For decades, scientists thought the toddler died nearly 500 years from smallpox. New research shows it carried hepatitis B.
Speckled with lesions across its dried, ghastly face, the nearly 500-year-old child mummy buried in a church in Naples, Italy, was long thought to be the earliest evidence of smallpox during the Italian Renaissance period.
But decades after researchers first examined it, a group of scientists has taken another look at the toddler’s remains and discovered that it most likely suffered from a different scourge: the hepatitis B virus.
FRIDAY, Oct. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) — Daily aspirin may reduce the risk of liver cancer for people with hepatitis B infection, a new study suggests.
Hepatitis B virus attacks the liver and can cause cirrhosis and liver cancer. Previous research suggests daily low-dose aspirin therapy may prevent cancer, but there is little clinical evidence on whether regular aspirin use can prevent liver cancer in people with hepatitis B.
Researchers from Taiwan analyzed data from close to 205,000 patients with chronic hepatitis B. They found that those on daily aspirin were much less likely to develop liver cancer over five years than those who did not take aspirin.
Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals today announced results from studies of ARC-520, a prior-generation RNAi therapeutic candidate against chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, in a Phase 2 clinical study in HBV patients and a complementary study in chimpanzees chronically infected with HBV. These studies demonstrated that HBV DNA integrated into the host genome is an under-appreciated source of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), a key protein implicated in maintaining chronic HBV infection.
In many patients, integrated HBV DNA appeared to be the dominant source of HBsAg production. The findings expand the understanding of HBV biology and host interactions, and could have important implications for future trial design and endpoint expectations for new therapies developed to cure chronic HBV. These data from study, “RNAi-based treatment of chronically infected patients and chimpanzees implicates integrated hepatitis B virus DNA as a source of HBsAg” were published in Science Translational Medicine.
Bruce D. Given, M.D., chief operating officer and head of R&D for Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals, said: “Our experience from Arrowhead’s multiple clinical studies of our prior therapeutic candidates ARC-520 and ARC-521, and the extensive non-clinical research we completed, have provided us with invaluable insights that guide the development path of follow-on candidate ARO-HBV, a new therapy for patients with chronic HBV that utilizes the company’s next generation Targeted RNAi Molecule (TRiMTM) platform. We think long-term immune control of HBV will require reduction of HBsAg from both integrated DNA and cccDNA, which ARO-HBV is designed to do. Importantly, the findings described in the Science Translational Medicine paper extend beyond HBsAg in showing reductions in other viral antigens and viral DNA. The ARC-520 and ARC-521 data suggest that an RNAi-based approach, like ARO-HBV, could serve as a cornerstone therapy for combinations intended to cure chronic HBV because it can act as a direct anti-viral against all HBV viral products and has the potential to synergize with other agents.”
A new meta-analysis of global hepatitis data shows that indigenous peoples are up to 10 times more likely to be infected by viral hepatitis than the general population in their respective countries, according to a presentation at the 2017 World Indigenous Peoples’ Conference on Viral Hepatitis, in Anchorage, Alaska.
“These data confirm that indigenous peoples worldwide are bearing a disproportionately high burden of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, or both. More must be done to ensure that Indigenous Peoples everywhere are at the heart of hepatitis treatment and prevention programs,” said Raquel Peck, the CEO of the World Hepatitis Alliance, in London.
In this new research, Homie Razavi, PhD, and Devin Razavi-Shearer-Spink, of the Polaris Observatory in Lafayette, Co., reviewed the prevalence of both viruses in the indigenous peoples and general populations of North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand. For hepatitis C virus (HCV), data that could be extrapolated to the general population were found for 11 countries and included 23 specific indigenous peoples and nations as well as 12 broader groupings, covering the period from 1991 onward.
Note: Liu Xiaobo gave his life to advocate for the people of China. He was imprisoned by the Chinese government for being a dissident and died of complications from hepatitis B. Alan
It was announced in a brief statement on Thursday that Liu had suffered multiple organ failure and efforts to save him had failed
Chinese Nobel Peace Prize-winning dissident Liu Xiaobo has died of liver cancer at a hospital in the northeastern city of Shenyang.
Liu, 61, was being treated for late-stage liver cancer. The Shenyang legal bureau said in a brief statement on its website that Liu had suffered multiple organ failure and efforts to save him had failed.